(1) Hunter et al., “Clinical Effectiveness of a Biofilm Disrupting Surgical Lavage in Reducing Bacterial Contamination in Total Knee Arthroplasty Revision Surgery in Known Cases of Prosthetic Joint Infection”, Zimmer Biomet white paper. (administered 1 litre volume via pulsed jet lavage)
(2) Premkumar A, et al. "Comparing the Efficacy of Irrigation Solutions on Staphylococcal Biofilm Formed on Arthroplasty Surfaces." J Arthroplasty. 2021 Feb 16:S0883-5403(21)00172-8. doi: 10.1016/j.arth.2021.02.033. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33750633.
(3) Global guidelines for the prevention of surgical site infection, second edition. Geneva: World Health Organization
(4) Clinical Practice Guidelines for Antimicrobial Prophylaxis in Surgery; jointly by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the Surgical Infection Society (SIS), and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) ; 2018